R&D expenditure in EU countries in 2004 and as planned: Annex I to Presidency conclusions - Brussels European Council, 25-26 March

Brussels, 24 March 2006

Brussels European Council, 23-24 March 2006
Presidency conclusions

ANNEX I: R&D expenditure (2004) as % of GDP and targets set by Member States in National Reform Programmes

Member State 2004 (1) - Target for 2010 or other years (2) - Remarks

Austria 2,26 3,00
Belgium 1,93 3,00
Cyprus 0,37 1,0
Czech Republic 1,28 2,06 - target of 1% public R&D with estimated 1,06% of private expenditure
Denmark 2,61 3,00 - target of 1% public R&D in 2010
Estonia 0,91 1,90
Finland 3,51 4,00
France 2,16 3,00
Germany 2,49 3,00
Greece 0,58 1,50
Hungary 0,89 1,8 with an increased participation of the private sector
Ireland 1,20 2,50% of GNP - target for 2013
Italy 1,14 2,5
Latvia 0,42 1,50
Lithuania 0,76 2,00
Luxembourg 1,78 3,00
Malta 0,3 0,75
Netherlands 1,77 3,00
Poland 0,58 1,65 - target for 2008.
Portugal 0,78 1,80 - target of 1% public R&D and tripling of private R&D
Slovakia 0,53 1,80
Slovenia 1,61 3,00
Spain 1,07 2,00
Sweden 3,74 4,00 - target of 1% public R&D and unchanged private R&D
UK 1,79 2,50 - target for 2014

(1) Source: Eurostat. Most values are provisional. The values for IT, LU and PT refer to 2003.
(2) Source: National Reform Programmes, with European Commission estimates based on the targets provided by PT, SE.

EU Council
News release 7775/06 CONCL 1

Already registered?

Sign in now if you are already registered or a current subscriber. Or subscribe for unrestricted access to our digital editions and iPad and iPhone app.

Register to continue  

You've enjoyed reading five THE articles this month. Register now to get five more, or subscribe for unrestricted access.

Most Commented

  • Elly Walton illustration (16 July 2015)

Whether in jest or not, sexist language shows an insensitivity to gender issues at odds with academic values, argues Dorothy Bishop

  • Tony Little, Eton College headmaster, 2007

Tony Little points to ‘increasing gap’ between teaching standards at sixth form and university

  • Tourists in rubber rings and flippers ready for snorkeling class

Dress to impress if you want students in your corner, claims US study

  • gold on scales

£246 million is big money but it is probably much less than the hit the research budget would take if the REF did not exist, says Paul Jump